A model is presented of an open-voting public choice process that features
pressure groups vying for society's support. Individuals choose what policy
to advocate on the basis of their private preferences, which are those
they would express in a secret ballot; endogenous social pressures; and
the utility they gain from integrity. They falsify their preferences when
the benefits of doing so outweigh the costs. An implication is that a policy
advocated by few people in private might receive strong public support.
The paper goes on to explore why secret voting, which eliminates this possibility,
might not be adopted.
Public Choice, 53 (1987): 53-78.