An enduring challenge of democracy is to give citizens an effective
say in collective decision making by ensuring broad participation in political
discourse. Deliberative opinion polling aims to meet this challenge by
providing new opportunities for ordinary citizens to form educated opinions.
This approach to broadening deliberation does not aim to control substantive
outcomes, unlike conceptions of deliberative democracy that promote improved
dialogue while also restricting the possible outcomes. But both classes
of reform overlook the prevalence of democratic failures stemming from
social pressures that discourage open and honest communication. New avenues
fror dialogue will remain clogged unless supported by political institutions
that protect dissenters, and by a political ethic that rewards candor.
Critical Review, 12 (Fall 1998): 529-544.