Ethnic norms are the behavioral codes that individuals must follow to
retain the acceptance of their ethnic groups. They are sustained partly
by sanctions that individuals impose on each other in trying to establish
personally advantageous ethnic credentials. This essay analyzes the process
of "ethnification" through which a society's ethnic norms become more demanding.
The key to the argument lies in interdependencies among individual behaviors.
These interdependencies allow changes in one person's choices to trigger
vast numbers of additional adjustments through a reputational cascade—a
self-reinforcing process by which people concerned about their reputations
induce each other to step up their ethnically symbolic activities. According
to the analysis, a society exhibiting low ethnic activity generates social
forces tending to preserve that condition; but if these forces are somehow
overcome, the result may be massive ethnification. One implication is that
societies only slightly different in terms of age distribution, economic
development, or culture may vary greatly in terms of aggregate ethnic activity.
Another is that ethnically based fears and hatreds constitute by-products
of ethnification rather than its fundamental source.
Journal of Legal Studies, 27 (Summer 1998, pt. 2): 623-659.